I was wondering if their were any intermarriages between Fijian Royal Families & Samoan Royal Families? I can only think of 1 or 2 but I wanted to ask before opening my mouth lol more info would be great.....
I have heard a version of the Vaea story you relate above in Tongan accounts and is very similar. Vaea as a title (or Kaukauloka is his kava name/hingoa fakatenetene) is also a chief of the Ha'a Havea (Sa Savea) clan in Tonga with his estatea in Houma in Tongatapu (AKA Mapu o Vaea). There is very strong Fijian connections in Houma and also links to Uvea. Houma warriors were feared in war and were also experts of the Kailao war dance imported from Uvea.
Is the Tagaloa of Manu'a connected at all to the Tagaloa title in Safune, Savai'i? I understand that the brothers Fune and Fotu were sons of Lafai. Savai'i is also known as Salafai. The sons of Lafai established Safotu and Safune. Lilomaiava is a high ranking Ao title with links to Safotu (and Palauli). Tagaloa is another high title from Safune.
I wonder if this Lafai is the same Lafai (later called Lafaipana or Lafai the stunted/dwarf) in Tongan accounts of Fasiapule's expedition to Savai'i to recover the shell of Sagone, belonging to his halfbrother Tu'i Tonga Tui'itatui? Fasiapule worked out an ancient riddle set by Lafai in order to recover the turtle shell. This is all heliaki for a number of significant events that occured during this era.
Serial 8 on that page makes reference to a Tongan woman of rank named 'Tule' who was bethrothed to the TC , Ratu Goleanavanua (this was the guy who was close to Ma'afu). The oral tradition/history in Somosomo (Taveuni) says that Tule also had Samoan connexions thru her membership of the Tui Ha'anganna (TH) clan from Ha'ano and later, Mua (or vice versa?).
It is claimed that the TH (and 'Tule' in paticular) are direct descendants of the Tui Tonga and Tui Tonga Fefine (refer the link in question).
My extrapolations from your various postings on this thread are that Tule's Samoan connexion could be traced back to the Samoan Taupou, Sina, who married Nganatatafu (one of the sons of the 20th TT) - Sina and Nganatatafu are the ancestors of the TH clan of Ha'ano, as you claim.
So I guess in a cultural context, Tule's bethrothal to the TC (Goleanavanua) could be viewed in one sense as a strengthening of the TH links to th Ha'a Fale Fisi ...and in another sense, the marriage/bethrothal also reinforced Tule's position as a descendant of the TTF (Fefine) who by Tongan custom should be bethrothed to a Fijian high chief as TC (Goleanavanua) indeed was.
It appears to be a good example of the nuances and complexities involved in the Tongan (and Fijian) custom or practice of 'strategic marriages'. In this way the Tongans and Fijians kind of complemented and accommodated each other culturally.
Am I thinking along the right lines here?
Your thoughts would be appreciated
PS: If you look at that link , serial 9 also connects the current TC to Tongan nobility through Tupou Moeofo etc
I have learned a great amount from you but what I would like to address is the SAMOAN DYNASTY in Tonga known as the TUI KANOKUPOLU DYNASTY Kanokupolu or A'ano Upolu meaning FLESH OF UPOLU.
Samoan Chief Ama of Safata traveled and settled in Tonga and from what you have told me and from my research thousands of Samoans migrated along with Samoan Chief Ama. Samoan Chief Ama's daughter Limapo married a Tui Haatakalaua. There son was named Ngata and was established in HIHIFO as Tui Hihifo. The only Tongans that went with Ngata to establish him as Tui Hihifo was his brothers the rest SAMOANS.
The Samoans made Ngata a Samoan Chief on Tongan Soil gave him protectors, established his Fale Upolu, his FONO (Fale Haakili) & his Itu (District) as a separate KINGDOM in Tonga from what I learned a Samoan Kingdom at that.
It is written in History that without the support and help from SAMOANS the Samoan Tui Kanokupolu Dynasty would not have been successful.
Many of the Tui Kanokupolu's MATAPULE'S or HIGH CHIEFS installed to rule over various districts and villages in Tonga were all SAMOAN. This Samoan Dynasty in Tonga stretched Samoan Influence to all corners of Tonga in as little as 2 centuries.
-AKAUOLA:the toutai(navigator) of the king of Tonga. a member of the Ha'a Toutai. He is said to be of Samoan descent,the Samoan form of his title being La'auola. AKAUOLA and MOALA are related.
-HAUFANO: a matapule to the Tui Kanokupolu. Resides in Niuafo'ou.(**Haufano, I believe to be or is FAUFANO..a not so common a name, but of Manu'a connections...ties..origin)
-KAMA: a matapule title derived from the AMA chiefly title of Safata district, Upolu Island, Samoa. Filise Vaitaiki was the personal name of the Kama of 1921.
-LEHA: matapule to Jioeli Pangia(the man who probably would be Tui Tonga, if the office were not absorbed by the Tui Kanokupolu). Leha's functions are house building and boat building.
The first LEHA came from SAMOA. Compare Lehapoto and Lehauli
-MOALA: a toutai(navigator) to the Tui Kanokupolu. He is of reputed SAMOAN descent and related to AKAUOLA. Seat is in the Hihifo district, Tongatapu.
*MOTU'APUAKA: One of the two great matapules of the Tui Kanokupolu. He is of SAMOAN lineage.
-TAHIMATAKIMOANA: a matapule of the village of Uiha, Uiha Island, Ha'apai, serving chief Malupo. (Malupo is also stated to be of Samoan lineage)
-'UHATAFE: a matapule and carpenter to the Tui Tonga of SAMOAN origin.
-UHI: a matapule to ATA. for origin see VAENO.
(**Uhi and Va'eno are of Samoan origin).
-ULA: a navigator title. The origin of Ula is SAMOAN. His seat is at Neiafu in the Hihifo district, Tongatapu. The Tamaha's genealogies show a succession as follows; ULA to his son's son Likuohihifo, to his son Amini. The late Queen Takipo, the wife of King George Tupou II, was the daughter of an ULA.
-VA'ENO: a matapule to Tungi. Of SAMOAN origin. A Samoan woman in the train of Tohuia(Limapo...the mother of the first Tui Kanokupolu) gave birth to twins who became Uhi and Va'eno . Their names became titles for two lines of matapule. Uhi is matapule to ATA.)
Kamoto, an important matapule, is the head of Fale Hakili, House of Hakili, said to be a Samoan Origin. He was brought to Hihifo when Ngata was born. The Hakili derives from Tohuia's uncle 'ILI of Samoan Origin.
This is just some of the SAMOANS of the TUI KANOKUPOLU DYNASTY. This Samoan Dynasty ruled Tonga and eclipsed the Tui Tonga, Tui Ha'atakalaua and merged it back into one line and is currently ruling Tonga.
that is correct. The Tu'i Kanokupolu dynasty established the Matai system successfully in Tonga in less than two centuries (Siaosi Ilaiu) and they continue to dominate in the current Tupou dynasty. The oral accounts from Fonuamotu the first settlement area of the Samoans in Mu'a (present day village of Tatakamotonga) state that when Amalele's entourage from Manono and Safata, Tuamasaga arrived, their was over a thousand attendants, warriors, tufuga etc... accompanying his daughter Limapo (also known as Tohu'ia in Tonga). Their presence was such that it pressured the Hau (ruler of Tonga) at the time, Tu'i Ha'atakalaua Mo'unga'otonga to create a separate 'Ao or Tu'i title for his youngest son Ngata, son of Limapo.
The people of Mu'a so feared and were jealous of the Samoan settlers that they began mistreating their guests. Apparently, the Samoans from Safata were beating the locals in all manner of sports, boxing, wrestling, club-fighting, music, arts, dance etc... Fights started to break out between the locals and visitors. The Samoans remained calm and cool despite the many night raids, taunts, abuse and disruptive behaviour of the troublemaking locals and Amalele told his warriors to not retaliate but to "tata'amotoga" or just be alert and be wary of the Tongans. This is the origin of the name Tatakamotonga.
In the end, Mo'unga'otonga realised that he had to also create a Itu or district for the Samoans to settle or they might take over the capital Mu'a itself! He decreed that he would gift the entire Western end of Tongatapu to his youngest son Ngata and he would be installed as Tu'i Hihifo and Tu'i Ha'a Mo'unga (new dynasty). The title Tu'i Kanokupolu merged both of these earlier titles to become what it is now, the paramount title that eventually destroyed the Tu'i Tonga and Tu'i Ha'atakalaua's power and influence in Tongan politics to this day. The first title holder of the Tu'i Kanokupolu was Havea (Savea) Mataeletu'apiko, ancestor of all the Ha'a Havea (Sa Savea) Chiefs and subsequent title holders. The name Savea or Havea in Tonga was the name of the first Malietoa also known as Savea. This is because Amalele is of the same direct line as Malietoa Fua'oleto'elau a direct descendant from the male line to Malietoa Savea. Installing the Tu'i Kanokupolu title signalled that this was when the Matai system was firmly established first in Hihifo, then in central Tongatapu and then throughout Tonga. The leading clans who brought this about were the Ha'a Havea and Ha'a Ngata motu'a.
The influence of Samoa on the Tongan political scene occured over generations and took almost two centuried to complete through careful strategic marriages, perseverance, title creation and proliferation but most importantly, through the establishment of the Matai system as argued by Ilaiu in his recent published thesis. Most Tongans are unaware of this fact and some deny or choose not to find out more about it. This was Samoan "influence" as opposed to direct rule through military "conquest" through war, as there has never been outright civil-war on Tongan soil up to the time when Tupou Moheofo seized the Tu'i Kanokupolu title. The assassination of Tuku'aho sparked the first ever all-out civil war on Tongan soil.
Moatunu, re Alia's history of Ngata. Is not this the same place of Kolovai now and the residence of the formerly titled Lavaka 'Ata? I forget the name of the community hall but it has the words 'Fale' and ''Ata' in it?
This is very very interesting indeed. Malo aupito Alia and Moatunu.
I am from Ha'apai and my great grandmother was Samoan. From my childish ears all I remember was that ggmother had sailed from Samoa with many others.
Your information is helping me to piece the story together.
BUT I must be honest. Growing up we (my family) used to be unsure of how to take the story of ggmother being a Samoan. It was like we were not 'pure' blood Tonga. The information above is giving my history real value.
Ofa'atu - Sione.
Malo tokoua, yes, Fale o Ata is also a tribute to one of the pre-eminent places in Samoa for the Sa-Malietoa called Faleata where Tuna, the younger brother of Malietoa Savea was sent to reside. His other brother Fata went to the Southern Coast of Tuamasaga and founded present day Safata where Amalele and the Tu'i Kanokupolu Chiefs can trace their ancestry. Kolovai can also be Samoanised as Olovai (similar to Olotele in Mu'a - residence of the Tu'i Tonga)...
I am the same with you, when I was younger I always thought the greatest thing was to be pure blooded Tongan. What I find now is that since I've discovered and studied my very close connections to Samoa and Fiji, it only makes my sense of self and my identity as a son of the Pacific stronger because of the sense of "place" and "connection" to my kainga Ha'amoa and Kainga Fisi. Pride is ok but if mis-directed can be very damaging as I have seen in our young Pacific people around the world... we can should focus on our similarities while embracing what makes us all unique.
This was Samoan "influence" as opposed to direct rule through military "conquest" through war, as there has never been outright civil-war on Tongan soil up to the time when Tupou Moheofo seized the Tu'i Kanokupolu title.
If I am correct many Samoan Warriors faught for Tui Kanokupolu and helped this Dynasty in various Wars for Power etc wasnt there a War between Tui A'ano Upolu and Tui Haatakalaua? Also many Samoan warriors faught along side Finau Ulukalala just to name 1 Samoan Warrior who faught along side Finau Ulukalala his name was Matautia he is also mentioned as Tupou 1's personal guard in the Haapai palace. Matautia was a younger brother of a high chief from Samoa but he seem to fight for Finau Ulukalala and ended up being Tupou 1's personal guard.
If I can recall Samoans helped Tui Kanokupolu Mataelehaamea fight a WAR against Tui Haatakalaua Vaea in which the Tui Haatakalaua was defeated and the Tui Kanokupolu Dynasty became more POWERFUL. I have a cousin from UPOLU who is related to the A'ano or Kanokupolu Line he told me whenever War broke out with the Tui Kanokupolu LINE in Tonga Samoan Warriors were sent to TONGA to assist there FAMILY which is the Tui Kanokupolu Line.
all-out Civil War involves an entire country against forces internal only. The only time this has occured in Tonga was after Tupou Moheofo took the Tu'i Kanokupolu title for herself (she was Moheofo or Principal wife of the Tu'i Tonga Paulaho). 'Ulukalala's wars occured after this period as I said, just after Tuku'aho was murdered by Tupounuia and his half brother 'Ulukalala. You are also correct about the Samoan warriors who accompanied Ulukalala. In fact his main wife was a Samoan Taupou!
Remember brother, the Tu'i A'ana and Tu'i Atua are closely related to the Tu'i Tonga and the Kahauhala'uta clans. This is why Amalele decided to side with the Tu'i Ha'atakalaua rather than the Tu'i Tonga. Malietoa was Hau or held the Malo in all of Samoa and so did Mo'ungamotu'a as Tu'i Ha'atakalaua. Malietoa was also seen as an upstart and usurper in Leulumoega (Tui A'ana and Lufilufi (Tui Atua) as he was not of "royal" ancestry but held political power through military conquest.
The reason Amalele left Upolu for Tonga was due to his defeat in a local war in Safata where his Alataua were beated by the forces of Satunumafono. (Ilaiu, 2007) His original reason for going to Tonga was to seek a wife for his duaghter so that he can then gain influence in Tonga and return with Tongan warriors to revenge his defeat by the forces of the new Tamasoaali'i title holder in Safata.
The point here is that no Samoan invading army took military control over Tonga and if they did arrive, they were under the command of a Tongan chief or were there as part of a visiting chiefs entourage. Like Manu'a, Tongatapu was revered as a sacred place and an ancient residence of the ancient Kau Tangaloa lines. The "influence" was through marriage and the Samoan lines effectively became absorbed as Tongan. Many Samoan and even more Fijians and Uveans assisted the various warring parties in Tonga during the Civil Wars of 1799 - 1852. Taufa'ahau Tupou I even went to Samoa and recruited warriors from Manono, Savai'i and Upolu. There is a book called the "Art of Tonga" where the researcher went to where Tupou I got his full pe'a done in one day. The locals (of the Su'a family) say that this is the only person in their knowledge to have gone the through the whole full body tatau in a single day and without flinching. To cap this off, he had the tip of his penis tatau'd as well. The Samoan warriors were so impressed they all decided to join and support him in his war. That same year, he defeated Laufilitonga at Velata and effectively became the Hau of all of Tonga. These Samoan warriors were also descendants of Tongans who intermarried with Samoan chiefly and warrior lines going back to Tu'i Tonga Talakaifaiki who's principle wife was Samoan and from Manono.
The point here is that no Samoan invading army took military control over Tonga and if they did arrive, they were under the command of a Tongan chief or were there as part of a visiting chiefs entourage.
Moatunu the Samoan Tui A'ano Upolu Dynasty became POWERFUL in TONGA through WARS etc as for when Samoan Military arrived in Tonga under Tongan Chiefs you forget that the Kanokupolu Kings were 50 percent Samoan 50 percent Tongan but were more SAMOAN then they were TONGAN hence there NAME Flesh of Upolu.
The Tui Kanokupolu Dynasty in Tonga reminds me exactly of the Ancient Tui Tonga Dynasty in Samoa. Tui Tonga has always been 50 percent Samoan 50 percent Tongan and to make it more interesting the first Tui Tonga Ahoeitu father was no other then the Great Tui Manu'a of Samoa himself who was looked at as a GOD.
If you study Royal Lineages excluding Fiji you will see that ROYALTY starts with Manu'a then Upolu and then Tonga.
(Correct me if I am wrong).
Tui Manu'a (SAMOA)- 60 holders of this this title
Tui Atua (SAMOA)- 51 holders of this title
Tui Tonga (TONGA)- 39 holders of this title
Tui A'ana -(SAMOA)- 38 holders of this title
Malietoa (SAMOA)- 29 holders of this title
Tui Kanokupolu (TONGA)- 23 holders of this title
Tui Haatakalaua (TONGA)- 16 holders of this title
Now if you take out the younger ones you are left with these 4 Royal Families
Tui Manu'a (SAMOA)- 60 holders of this this title
Tui Atua (SAMOA)- 51 holders of this title
Tui Tonga (TONGA)- 39 holders of this title
Tui A'ana -(SAMOA)- 38 holders of this title
Tui Tonga just like Tui Kanokupolu was half Samoan half Tongan the only difference is that Tui Kanokupolu did not get expelled from TONGA.
Correct again uso, 50% Tongan 50% Samoan and 100% coconuts the lot LOL! The genealogies of the Tu'i Tonga are with only one or two exceptions, strictly patrilineal and from father to eldest son for 39 unbroken generations. The Tu'i Tonga line has 39 holders each ruling on average 25 years (if you believe Gifford's estimation) or more realistically as argued more recently (Ilaiu) 35-40 years. The rest is simple math.
I understand that the Samoan Matai system has collateral succession meaning brothers and even cousins can often successfully contest a title even great Papa titles such as Tu'i Atua and Tu'i A'ana. Not sure of Tu'i Manu'a as this line was once indistinguishable with the Tu'i Tonga at various points. In the case of Samoan title proliferation and title holders, you could have over 5-7 holders in a single generation (this might account for the higher number of title holders?) This my brother, is what happened in Tonga when the Matai system took over. In one generation, you had 5-7 Tu'i Kanokupolu i.e. from Tu'i Halafatai to Mumui and even after the Civil War. This is actual evidence my brother of how Matai system was successfully installed in Tonga. If you observe carefully, I am actually supporting your argument about Samoan "Influence" in Tonga.
Manu'a has a claim on Tagaloa and so does Tongatapu. In his book 'Efinanga, Masiu Moala has recorded oral traditions from all over the Kingdom of Tonga including the important Kauhala'uta traditions. The account of 'Ilaheva Va'epopua is fascinating. Tangaloa resided in Tongatapu on the opposite side of Popua (present day Tukutonga), This is where the oral traditions relate how a giant Toa tree (heliaki?) had fallen and caused a landbridge between the two areas. This is how Tangaloa 'Eitumatupua crossed over and cohabited with 'Ilaheva Va'epopua and the origin of 'Aho'eitu. It is also the same Toa tree Aho'eitu climbed to find his celestial brothers. This is not to discredit Manu'a traditions that you have dutifully championed brother, and rightly so! But to add to your rich tapestry of our intertwined histories.
Recent findings in Nukuleka seem to suggest very ancient origins in the Fanga'uta lagoon, funny enough, this is right near the spot where Tangaloa is said to have resided. Wish I was there, but oral traditions and archeology (science) is all we can rely on.
Fa'afetai tele lava uso pea malo mu'a e si'i mateaki''i fonua mei hena.